England go into the European Championship knockout stage against old foes Germany with the scourge of penalties lurking in the background.
Shootout defeats at the 1990 World Cup and Euro 96 against the same opposition led former Germany captain Lothar Matthaus, who scored in 1990, to suggest that “England have a chance to win, but not with penalties”.
There are recent indications that England’s spot-kick luck may be turning, however, and here the PA news agency looks at the Three Lions’ shootout successes.
Spain, Euro 96
After a goalless quarter-final, Fernando Hierro hit the crossbar with Spain’s first penalty before David Seaman denied Miguel Angel Nadal.
England scored four from four thanks to Alan Shearer, David Platt, Stuart Pearce and Paul Gascoigne, with Pearce’s cathartic celebrations providing the enduring memory as he laid to rest the ghost of his miss against what was then West Germany at the 1990 World Cup.
The wave of euphoria in England’s home tournament finally expired with defeat to Germany in a semi-final shootout, with current Three Lions coach Gareth Southgate famously missing the decisive kick.
Colombia, World Cup, 2018
Jordan Henderson’s miss did not prove costly as Harry Kane, Marcus Rashford, Kieran Trippier and Eric Dier scored in a 4-3 England win after a 1-1 draw over 120 minutes.
Colombia had led 3-2 after David Ospina’s save from Henderson but Mateus Uribe hit the bar before Jordan Pickford denied Carlos Bacca.
Southgate led his side to the semi-finals, where they were eventually beaten in extra time by Croatia.
Switzerland, Nations League, 2019
Pickford became the first keeper to play in more than one successful shootout for England, scoring the fifth penalty himself along the way.
Harry Maguire, Ross Barkley, Jadon Sancho, Raheem Sterling and Dier were also successful before Pickford thwarted Josip Drmic to ensure successive shootout wins for the first time in England’s history.
That 6-5 success came at the end of a goalless third-placed play-off, with Pickford named in UEFA’s team of the tournament.
England’s shootout losses
Regardless of Pickford and England’s successes, Germany can draw on the psychological shadow of their two wins in the 1990s and an England record which still stands at seven losses from 10.
Portugal are another recurring foe, dumping England out of Euro 2004 and the 2006 World Cup on penalties as goalkeeper Ricardo made the crucial saves from Darius Vassell in 2004 and Jamie Carragher two years later.
Paul Ince and David Batty missed against Argentina at the 1998 World Cup and Ashley Young and Ashley Cole against Italy at Euro 2012 to make it three England exits from each competition via that method.
Defeat to Belgium at 1998’s King Hassan II International Cup in Morocco was less consequential, with Rob Lee and Rio Ferdinand the men to miss.
Euro 2020 squad
With Dier overlooked for the current tournament, along with Barkley, eight of England’s Euro 2020 squad have taken one penalty each in international shootouts.
Kane netted against Colombia and is England’s designated penalty taker in regulation play, scoring 10 from 12 with his misses coming against Turkey in 2016 and Kosovo in 2019.
Rashford has three from three plus a shootout goal, with Sterling scoring against Iceland in 2020 and in the Switzerland shootout.
Trippier, Sancho, Maguire and Pickford are also one from one in shootouts, leaving only Henderson – alongside coach Southgate – having missed.
The Liverpool captain also had a spot-kick saved in this month’s warm-up game against Romania, while Dominic Calvert-Lewin scored from the spot in a 2020 friendly win over the Republic of Ireland.